Home Theories How people migrate — 7. Regulation (final page)

How people migrate

Regulating migration

Given the potential abuses that their citizens can be exposed to governments in some countries of origin are making greater efforts to manage emigration and support migrants overseas.

A few countries apply exit controls, and some have prohibited workers from going to destinations where migrants have previously experienced abuses.

Governments will also want to manage recruitment — ensuring that agencies work in a legal and fair way and do not exploit the ignorance of potential migrants. The most extensive management is in the Philippines where the Overseas Employment Administration requires all agencies to register and fixes the fees that they can charge. Governments can also offer pre-departure training.

A number of countries of origin have now established welfare funds. Financed largely through a levies from migrants, these funds can, among other things, provide various kinds of emergency assistance.

There have also been international efforts at regulating migration. The International Labour Organization has two Conventions on labour migration and there is also UN Migrant Workers Convention — the 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. However given the reluctance of destination countries to enter into binding agreements, the ILO has also developed a non-binding multilateral 'framework' that enables countries to align their national policies in a flexible way with international principles.

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Philippines Overseas Employment Admininstration

Job seekers get pre-departure orientation at the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration.
IOM 2007 - MPH0179 (Photo: Angelo Jacinto)